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Proper Application of UL Standards for Controlled or Delayed Egress Locking Devices – UL 294 & 1034

Lock hardware is a critical aspect of egress systems which are governed by specific building and life safety codes.

Fire Door Field Inspection Programs

March 5, 2021

Authored by: Lou Chavez, Principal Engineer, Security and Life Safety, and a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff - William Henry Merrill Society 

 

A critical part of an access or egress control system is the lock hardware that holds a door closed and opens or releases when initiated. Like many components of an integrated system, the locking mechanism can have various forms and functionalities, depending on the particular applications.   

The International Building Code (IBC) and the NFPA 101 Life Safety Code both include requirements for a means of egress system to be provided that includes a continuous and unobstructed path of egress travel from any occupied point in a building, structure or facility to a public way. However, there are specific situations in which these model codes allow locking arrangements that limit the immediate and unobstructed egress travel under strict provisions. This article provides an overview of some of these applications, and identifies locking products that UL certifies for use in in egress or access control that allow for code compliant installation and application. 

The factors that must also be considered for installation and in accordance with applicable codes include: 

  • Integration with fire detection and suppression or other life safety systems that release locked doors upon their activation, allowing immediate emergency egress  

  • Fail safe features to release locks in the event of a loss of power 

  • Fail secure features that intentionally maintain locked positions  

  • Emergency planning and preparedness with staff training and required drills 

  • Limitations on the delay time for delayed-egress doors 

  • Special signage requirements  

  • Security and resistance to unauthorized entry may also be considerations  

UL certifies locks and locking systems that are in compliance with end product standards under several different product categories (also known as CCNs). Each end product standard defines the scope of the application and includes construction and test compliance criteria for evaluation and certification. Product category information and certifications can be found using the UL online database, Product iQTM, available at www.ul.com/PiQ. Product IQ is free to use, but does require a simple one-time registration. 

Typical end uses for the locks and locking systems include integration into access control systems, fire rated door assemblies, special locking arrangements, panic hardware, controlled exit panic devices and burglary resistant electric locks. Locks and locking systems used in these applications can take different forms depending on the design of a product or system. Some of these devices are purely mechanical and others may include electronics to control or provide delayed release or audible alarm functions. Certified locks are investigated for safety from electric shock and mechanical hazards and depending on the product type may also be tested for burglary resistance and/or fire resistance.  

The table below summarizes UL’s primary categories and standards for various locking devices and systems that are typically used on means of egress or controlled areas. The UL Certification Mark attributes are identified in the Notes column. 

Standard and CCN 

UL Certification Category Title 

Notes 

Typical door hardware/ lock form factor 

UL 294, Standard for Access Control System Units 

ALVY category 

 

Access Control System Units* 

Sec. 34.2 applies to Single point locking devices 

 

The Certification Mark for these products includes the UL symbol, the words CERTIFIED, SAFETY and SECURITY, geographic identifier(s), and a file number. 

Autonomous access control lock 

 

 

UL 294 

FWAX category 

Special Locking Arrangements 

UL 294, Sec. 68 applies to Controlled and Delayed Egress Equipment and Systems Operation 

 

The  Certification Mark  for these products includes the UL symbol, the words CERTIFIED, SAFETY and SECURITY,  the geographic identifier(s), and a file number. 

Require to Exit (REX) devices / systems and controlled or delayed egress locks 

UL 1034, Standard for Burglary-Resistant Electric Locking Mechanisms 

CVXS category for electric dead bolts, CVXY category for electric door strikes, 

CVYR category for Electric Locking Mechanism Accessories,  

CVYT category for electromagnetic locks 

Burglary Resistant Electric Locking Mechanisms 

Performance based for static force, dynamic force, and endurance test factors 

 

The  Certification Mark  for these products includes the UL symbol, the words CERTIFIED, SAFETY and SECURITY, the geographic identifier(s), and a file number. 

Electromagnetic locks, electric dead bolts, electric door strikes and electrically operated door locking mechanisms  

UL 305, Standard for Panic Hardware 

FVSR category 

GXHX category 

Panic or Fire Exit Hardware 

Generally mechanical devices only (no electronics) 

 

The  Certification Mark  for these products includes the UL symbol, the words "CERTIFIED" and "SAFETY,"  the geographic identifier(s), and a file number. 

 

Panic hardware and fire exit hardware 

UL 294 and UL 305, FULA category  

 

Controlled Exit  Panic Devices 

UL 294, and UL 305 apply  

 

The  Certification Mark  for these products includes the UL symbol, the words "CERTIFIED" and "SAFETY,"  the geographic identifier(s), and a file number. 

 

Electromechanical  locking/latching mechanisms   

UL 634, Standard for Connectors and Switches for Use with Burglar-Alarm Systems 

AMQV product category 

Connectors and Switches for use in Burglar Alarm Systems 

Includes electric power transfers, door loops and door position switches 

 

The  Certification Mark  for these products includes the UL symbol, the words CERTIFIED, SAFETY and SECURITY, the geographic identifier(s), and a file number. 

Electric hinge and flexible connectors intended for burglar alarm applications 

UL 10C, Standard for Positive Pressure Fire Tests of Door Assemblies 

 

Fire Door and Window Marking and Application Guide  

Positive Pressure Fire Test of Door Assemblies 

Also, UL 305 for GXHX; card readers and components for use with locks sold separately listed under GWVW 

 

The  Certification Mark  for these products includes the UL symbol, the words CERTIFIED and SAFETY,  the geographic identifier(s), and a file number. 

Electric cylindrical locks and mortise locks, (Electrically Controlled Single-Point Locks or Latches GYQS) Electromagnetic locks (GWXT), Fire Exit Hardware (GXHX), Electrified Hinge (GWZQ), Electric strikes (GXAY); Miscellaneous Fire Door Accessories, Positive Pressure Tested (GVUY), Accessories for use with Single-point locks and latches and fire exit hardware (GWVW

*Typical installations involve a UL 294 certified access control panel, UL 294 (or UL 603 or UL 2610) certified power supply, and UL 294 certified readers, which may control UL 1034 certified burglary resistant locks or strikes. 

 

An end user or code authority can see various configurations of equipment incorporated into a system and the equipment may have different forms to suit a specific application. A very common scenario is the use of UL 294 certified access control systems units controlling locks certified to UL 1034.   

Other prevalent applications include special locking arrangements that have dedicated system component equipment and certified locks connected to control a request to exit (REX) system. For this application, the REX system certification is specific to the system components submitted for investigation.  

The various permutations of locking hardware and systems applications (see table) allows for the use of the devices in accordance with model building and life safety codes, with the common element of safety by design.  

For more information on access and egress control locking configurations, please contact[email protected].

 

The Code Authority Newsletter 2021 | Issue 1

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