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This article focuses on the two remaining penalties, which have received less commentary to date: periodic penalty payments [astreintes] and civil liability action [responsabilité civile]. It analyses whether, and the extent to which, implementation of these penalties is likely to be genuinely effective in achieving the Law’s twofold objective: remediation and prevention. This article suggests that the Law’s provisions on civil liability afford limited opportunity for victims of adverse human rights impacts to bring actions before the courts, thereby falling short on the goal of remediation. However it also concludes that the Law’s set of penalties does act as an effective tool for ensuring corporate accountability and preventing human rights abuses through increased scrutiny and deterrence.

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